CRYSTAL CLEAR HEALING

REIKI HEALING 

GENERAL PUBLISHED EVIDENCE

 
Reiki Is Better Than Placebo and Has Broad Potential as a Complementary Health Therapy by David E. McManus, PhD¹
 
The study reviews the available clinical studies of Reiki to determine whether there is evidence for Reiki providing more than just a placebo effect.
The available English-language literature of Reiki was reviewed, specifically for peer-reveiwed clinical studies with more than 20 participants in the Reiki treatment arm, controlling for a placebo effect.
 
 Of the 13 suitable studies, 8 demonstrated Reiki being more effective than placebo, 4 found no difference, but had questionable statistical resolving power and only one provided clear evidence for not providing benefit.
Viewed collectively, these studies provide reasonably strong support for Reiki being more effective than placebo.
 
From the information currently available, Reiki is a safe and gentle “complimentary” therapy that activates the parasympathetic nervous system heal body and mind. It has potential for broader use in management to chronic health conditions and possibly in postoperative recovery.
 
Reiki is one of the more popular complementary modalities used by Australians to manage heath conditions.¹
 
Information gleaned from public sources in Australia, indicate that it is being employed with good effect in some hospitals, cancer support centres, drug and alcohol rehabilitation centres and palliative care. 

evidence based findings in cancer

 
At the Oncology-Haematology Unit at Bega Valley Health Services, Reiki sessions are provided by Jennifer Arenas, who reported;
 
“Patients and carer repossess noticeably referred to their fear and anxiety during a time of diagnosis of cancer and follow-up treatments. Most patients are grateful that the hospital provides this service, which they report as bringing diverse benefits, particularly on an emotional level and one that is personally supportive as they negotiate a stressful and traumatic period with less fear, anxiety or depression.”²
 
Reviews of Reiki clinical trials have been published by Lee et al,³ vanderVaart et al,¹ and Baldwin et al.²
 
In summary, these reviewers found that Reiki had some promise in the areas of pain, relaxation and anxiety management, but there was a need for further experiments with greater numbers of subjects to allow statistically meaningful interpretation.

 

 

 

evidence based findings in chronic illness

 
Dressed and Singg³ investigated the potential benefits of Reiki for patients with a variety of chronic illnesses.
 
This randomised, single-blind, placebo controlled pilot study involved 4 treatment arms:
1) Reiki [n=30]
2) sham Reiki placebo [n=30]
3) progressive muscle relaxation [n=30], and
4) rest control [n=30]
 
Reiki has provided by 4 Reiki masters as 30-minute sessions covering the full body of recumbent participant, given 2 times per week for 5 weeks.
 
It was found that Reiki was more effective than the other treatments for reducing pain, depression and state anxiety in chronically ill patients.
 
Reiki was also found to cause desirable changes in personality, including reduced trait anxiety, enhancement of self-esteem, a shift toward internal locus of control and toward a realistic sense of personal control.
 
Alarcão and Fonseca¹ employed a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study wit a cross-sectional design to investigate the effects of Reiki on the quality of life of blood cancer patients.
 
The study involved 2 treatment groups;
1) Reiki [n=58] and
2) sham Reiki placebo [n=42]
Reiki [by Reiki masters] or sham Reiki treatment was provided in 60-minute sessions, twice a week for 4 weeks.
 
Patient responses were assessed using the WHOQol-Bref, an abbreviated generic Quality of Life Scale.
 
It was found that the Reiki group showed significantly more improvements in the general, physical, environmental and social dimensions of the WHOQol-Bref.
They generally felt better about themselves, their physical condition and their relationships with their environment and other people.

 

 
 

more general findings…

 
Viewed collectively, these studies provide reasonably strong support for Reiki being more effective than placebo.
 
Two of the studies were conducted with rats and produced clear, objective evidence of a benefit of Reiki over placebo.
 
This suggests that there is some merit to the claim that Reiki “attunement” imparts and extra healing capacity to the recipient.
 
Although there is currently no scientific explanation for this, the clinical trial evidence is compelling. Further research is warranted to better understand this phenomenon.
Reiki has been shown to be better than placebo for inducing a state of relaxation.¹
Physiologically, this means that Reiki is effective in activating the parasympathetic nervous system, quantitatively measured as reduced heart rate,² reduced blood pressure,³ and increased heart rate variability.¹
 
The parasympathetic system is one branch of the autonomic nervous system, the other branch being the sympathetic nervous system.
In a healthy individual, the activity of the branches can be rapidly modulated in response to changing environmental demands, but overall are maintained in a state of dynamic balance, or homeostasis.
 
This regulatory process is primarily mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system via the vagus nerve.²
For patients with chronic health conditions, Reiki has been found to be more effective than placebo for reducing pain and anxiety,³ depression¹ and for improving self-esteem² and quality of life.³
It seems likely that these effects are age result go Reiki’s ability to activate the parasympathetic nervous system and increase heart rate variability, which can be understood in terms of the neurovisceral integration model¹ and the polyvagal theory.²
 
As safe and gentle way to activate the parasympathetic nervous system via deep relaxation, Reiki has the potential to provide support for a broad range of chronic health conditions.
 
Reiki should be regarded as a useful compliment to conventional practices, especially for chronic illnesses where the use of drugs offers little benefit.
For example, the effectiveness of Reiki as an aid to recovery after major surgical procedures has been tested in Indian hospital.
 
Reiki was provided for 7 days after surgical procedures such as laparotomy, gastrectomy, hysterectomy, cholecystectomy, mastectomy and general abdominal surgeries.
 
Reiki was found to improve the vital signs (temperature, pulse, respiration, blood pressure and pain), hence the prospects for better recovery and to reduce anxiety and depression.³
 
Also, Reiki has been found to significantly reduce pain and the need for analgesics following total knee arthroscopy¹ and delivery by Caesarean section.² ³
Such results are potentially significant, because it has been shown that high preoperative period leads to a higher morbidity and mortality rate.
 
Reiki could potentially play a complimentary role in acute surgical procedures, to reduce the risk and cost of Postoperative complications.¹
 
No research has been conducted to evaluate the optimum duration of a Reiki session, or the optimum number of sessions that should be provided.
 
Typically, a Reiki practitioner would recommend the use of 3 sessions as a starting point, regarding more Reiki as being better than less.
 
The optimum amount is likely to be different for each condition and possibly each person, so this could be a significant source of experimental variation that has not yet been taken into account.
 

CONCLUSION

 
Reiki is a safe, gentle and profoundly relaxing healing modality that can be practiced by anyone who has received an “attunement” form a Reiki master.
 
This review has found reasonably strong evidence for Reiki being more effective than placebo, suggesting that Reiki attunement leads to a quantifiable increase in healing ability.
 
Reiki is better than placebo in activating the parasympathetic nervous system, as measured by reduced heart rate, reduced blood pressure and increased heart rate variability.
 
For patients with chronic health conditions, Reiki has been found to be more effective than placebo fro reducing pain, anxiety, depression and for improving self-esteem and quality of life.
 
According to the neurovisceral integration model and the polyvagal theory, these effects are due to higher parasympathetic nervous system activity, mediated via the vagus nerve.
 
This understanding suggest that Reiki has the potential to provide valuable support for a broad range of chronic health conditions. 
 
However, there is no justification to regards Reiki as a cure for any health condition.
 
 
Instead, Reiki should be regarded as a complimentary therapy that can be implemented alongside all other medical and therapeutic techniques.
 

 

 

NIH – National Library of Medicine
J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2017 Oct;22(4):1051-1057
Published online 2017 Sep 5 doi; 10.1177/2156587217728644
PMCID: PMC5871310 – PMID28874060
 

 

REFERENCES IN GENERAL FINDINGS

 
¹Lin V, Caraway R, Carter B. Interface, interaction and integration: how people with chronic disease in Australia manage CAM and conventional medical services – Health Expect. 2015;18:2651-2665
²Coleman J. The effectiveness of Reiki Treatments: A Summary of Evidence-Based Research and Clinical Effectiveness  [Submission on “The Effectiveness of Reiki Treatments” to the Review of Australian Government Rebate on Private Health Insurance for Natural Therapies] Monbulk, Victoria, Australia: Australian Reiki Connection Inc; 2013.
³Lee MS, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Effects of Reiki in clinical practice: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Int J Coin Pract. 2008;62:947-954
¹vanderVaart S, Gijsen VM, de Wilde SN, Korea G. A systematic review of the therapeutic effects of Reiki. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15:1157-1169
²Baldwin AL, Vitale A, Brownell E, Scicinski J, Kearns M, Rand W. The Touchstone Process: an ongoing crystal evaluation of Reiki in the scientific literature. Holes Nurs Pract. 2010;24:260-276
 

REFERENCES IN CHRONIC ILLNESS

  
³Dressen LJ, Ding S. Effects of Reiki on pain and selected affective and personality variables of chronically ill patients. Subtle Energies Energy Med J Arch. 1998;9:51-82
¹Alarcão Z, Cinar S. The effect of Reiki on depression in elderly people living in nursing home. Indian J Trait Knowledge. 2016;15:35-40
 
 

REFERENCES IN GENERAL FINDINGS

 
¹and² Baldwin AL, Schwartz GE. Personal interaction with a Reiki practitioner decreases noise-induced microvascular damage in an animal model. J Altern Complement Med. 2006:12:15-22
³Salles LT, Vannucci L, Salles A, Silva MJPD. The effect of Reiki on blood hypertension. Acts Paulista de Enfermagem. 2014;27:479-484
¹Díaz-Rodríguez L, Arroyo-Morales M, Fernández-de-las-Peñas C, García-Lefuente F, García-Royo C, Tomás-Rojas I. Immediate effects of reiki on heart rate variability, cortisol levels and body temperature in health care professionals with burnout. Boil Red Nurs. 2011;13:376-382
²Porges SW. Vagal tone: A physiologic marker of stress vulnerability. Pediatrics. 1992;90:498-504
³Dressen LJ, Sing S. Effects of Reiki on pain and selected affective and personality variables of chronically ill patients. Subtle Energies Energy Med J Arch. 1998;9:51-82
¹Erdogan Z, Cinar S. The effect of Reiki on depression in elderly people living in nursing home. Indian J Tradit Knowledge. 2016;15:35-40
²Dressen LJ, Sing S. Effects of Reiki on pain and selected affective and personality variables of chronically ill patients. Subtle Energies Energy Med J Arch. 1998;9:51-82
³Alarcão Z, Fonseca JR. The effect of Reiki therapy on quality of life of patients with blood cancer; results from a randomised controlled trial. Our J Integr Med. 2016;8:239-249
¹Thayer JF, Lane RD. A model of neurovisceral integration ij emotion regulation and dysregulation. J Affect Disorder. 2000;61:201-216
²Porges SW. Vagal tone: a physiological market of stress vulnerability. Paediatrics. 1992;90:239-249
³Sasikala G. Effect of Reiki therapy on bio physiological status of patients after major surgical procedures: a pilot report. Indian J Health Wellbeing. 2013;4:1011-1017
¹Notte BB, Fazioni C, Mooney RA. Reiki’s effect on patients with total knee arthroplasty: a pilot study. Nursing. 2016;46:17-23
²and³ Midilli TS, Eser I. Effects of Reiki on post-cesarean delivery pain, anxiety and hemodynamic parameters; a randomised, controlled clinical trial. Pain Manage Nurse. 2015;16:388-399
Midilli TS, Gunduzoglu NC. Effects of Reiki on pain and vital signs when applied to randomised, double-controlled study. Holist Nurs Pract. 2016;30:368-378
¹Sasikala G. Effect of Reiki therapy on bio physiological status of patients after major surgical procedures: a pilot report. Indian J Health Wellbeing. 2013;4:1011-1017